Contact: Lee C. Schmeer and Jonathan M. Stern, Schnader (Delaware & Pennsylvania, USA) 

New regulations governing National Transportation Safety Board investigative hearings, meetings, reports and petitions for reconsideration are set to go into effect on January 25, 2016. In general, the new regulations streamline the organization of Part 845 by condensing and eliminating some previous sections. By the addition of a new section on proceedings meant to address negative trends or other identified problem areas without the need for an underlying accident or incident, the thrust of these changes seems aimed at increasing both the education and involvement of the public in the NTSB’s processes.

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As per the arbitration and civil rules in the UAE, the arbitration rules shall be governed by the Terms of Reference. The Terms of Reference is a document used within international arbitration law. Its main purpose is to ensure the fast and efficient progress of arbitration proceedings. The agreement is drawn and signed by mutual consent of the parties and arbitrators.

Read more: Arbitration Article Series: III. Terms of References


An arbitrator can be appointed directly by name (this is not the common method used), through the court or through the arbitration centre. If you agree for the court or arbitration centre to appoint an arbitrator you need to make an application. The arbitration provisions of the Civil Procedure Code contain mandatory provisions concerning the appointment of an arbitrator. There must be an odd number of arbitrators, although there is no limit set on the number of arbitrators.

Read more: Arbitration Article Series: II. Appointing Arbitrators


The UAE has rapidly emerged as a leading financial centre, attracting large global investors and businesses. As international developers and contractors continue to invest in construction projects, there has been an increasing trend in the use of arbitration in Dubai. The arbitration process is the preferred method to resolve disputes by commercial companies. As the certified language of arbitration proceedings is in English, a specialist tribunal can be appointed as opposed to the more broad UAE courts, and arbitration is generally more cost-effective and less time-consuming. This has led businesses and investors in the UAE to ensure that arbitration clauses or agreements are inserted into their contracts. Furthermore, the downturn in economic conditions in the real estate market over the past few years has led to an increase in disputes in general, and parties are more likely to issue court proceedings than to try to recover their losses through other ventures.

Read more: Arbitration Article Series: I. Rise of Arbitration


In International Chamber of Commerce (“ICC”) arbitrations, new claims that are subsequent to the terms of reference are subject to the arbitral tribunal’s authorization. Article 23(4) of the ICC Arbitration Rules (“Rules”) give discretion to the arbitral tribunal by setting forth that the arbitral tribunal shall consider the nature of new claims, the stage of the arbitration, and other relevant circumstances.

The issue of new claims in ICC arbitrations and the application of Article 23(4) in these matters are analyzed in this article.

Read more: New Claims subsequent to the Terms of Reference in ICC Arbitrations