Financial Institutions and Markets (J)
Financial Institutions and Markets (J)
Bressler, Amery & Ross, P.C. Principal Denver Edwards was quoted in the Bloomberg BNA article, “Equifax Data Breach May Prompt Shareholder Derivative Suit,” by Jimmy H. Koo on September 13. The article discusses the recent breach of Equifax customers’ data and the possibility of a shareholder derivative suit.
A derivative suit against Equifax will likely allege breach of fiduciary duty. The purpose of any derivative suit is to “redress damages done by directors and officers,” but it isn’t “easy to have the board take action as they need to look at what happened” and assess whether there were any red flags, Edwards said.
Securities are governed by a multi-layered framework of federal and state laws. When a security is sold, it must either be registered or be exempt from registration under federal and applicable state law. A state exemption is required in each state in which the security is offered for sale or sold. An issuer that offers to sell or sells an unregistered security that is not exempt from registration commits an illegal act that could result in civil and even criminal penalties.
Section 3(a)(11) of the Securities Act and Rule 147 have historically defined what is commonly known as the federal intrastate exemption, which required, among other things, that the issuer offer to sell and sell only to residents of the state where the company was organized and doing a significant amount of business. Effective April 20, 2017, Rule 147 was amended and Rule 147A was adopted.
As per the simplest definition, crowdfunding is an alternative financing method for funding projects and entrepreneurs. The Draft Law on Amendments to the Capital Market Law (“Draft Law”) regarding crowdfunding prepared by the government has been submitted to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey on 26 December 2016. By the enactment of the aforementioned Draft Law, it is aimed to achieve to keep the crowdfunding platforms in a free market, and simultaneously to bring protection mechanisms.
Since the turn of the millennium, there has been an increase in the variety and use of capital structures of a company. Under the well-known and widely accepted Modigliani and Miller theorem (“M-M theorem”), regulators would be able to achieve any particularly desirable mix of debt and equity in banks at negligible cost, since leverage (banks' debt: equity ratio) would then be irrelevant to lending and its pricing. Although it is proposed by the M-M theorem that the capital structure of a company, i.e. how the combination of debt and equity is managed, is irrelevant for the value of the firm, this classical theorem has been challenged by many other theorems, such as the ‘trade-off’ theory, the ‘agency costs’ theory, and ‘pecking-order’ theory (Ferran, pp. 54-56).
Since 01.01.2017 a new Ordinance came into force - Ordinance № 12 of 29.09.2016 on the Register of bank accounts and safe deposit boxes (RBASDB). It regulates the functioning, scope, procedure and deadlines for filing and obtaining information from RBASDB which is maintained by the Bulgarian National Bank (BNB). The register is an electronic information system that provides centralized information on bank account numbers, their holders and persons authorized to operate with the accounts, as well as customers of safety deposit boxes in banks and persons authorized by them. The ones who are entitled to obtain information from the “Register” are the authorities and institutions under article 56a, paragraph 3 (the judicial authorities, National Revenue Agency, State Agency “National Security”, Chief Directorate “National Police”, Chief Directorate “Combating Organized Crime”, the enforcement agents when an enforcement case is filed, banks, etc.), as well as natural persons and legal entities under article 56a paragraph 4 of the Law on Credit Institutions (LCI). Banks and branches of foreign banks operating in the country, as well as the BNB, have an obligation to submit the necessary information to the “Register”.