Corporate and M&A


Author: Duygu Oner
 
Introduction 
 
Turkey ratified the Convention on the Contract for International Carriage of Goods by Road ("CMR") in accordance with Act No. 3939 dated 7 December 1993, and the CMR entered into force in Turkey on 31 October 1995.  In accordance with Article 1 / 1 of the CMR, the carriage of goods by road shall be subject to the CMR in cases when the place of taking over of the goods and the place designated for delivery, as specified in the contract, are situated in two different countries, of which at least one is a contracting country, irrespective of the places of residence and the nationalities of the parties. The CMR is practically applicable to every carriage that begins or ends in or passes through Turkey. 

Read more: Carriage of Goods by Road under the Turkish Commercial Code


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The secondary legislation is introduced through publication in the Official Gazette dated 31 December 2016 and numbered 29935 (3rd Repeating) and entered into force on 1 January 2017 based on the Law on Movable Pledge in Commercial Transactions ("Law") numbered 6750 published in the Official Gazette dated 28 October 2016 and numbered 29871, and entered into force on 1 January 2017. With the innovations1 introduced to the existing regulations regarding movable pledge, it is aim to create an alternative method, particularly for small and medium-sized enterprises, to use movable pledges as security while obtaining financing. The implementation of movable pledges in commercial transactions has gradually increased with the enactment of the Law and the secondary legislation, which lead to formalization of movable pledge practices. In this sense, the content and the validity of movable pledge agreements ("Movable Pledge Agreements") have become significant.

Read more: Movable Pledge Agreements in Commercial Transactions


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A "Stock Option Plan" ("SOP") is an extremely popular method of attracting, motivating and retaining mostly the key employees, particularly when the company is unable to pay high salaries. This method is often used in the United States and European countries. Due to legal restrictions and lack of legislative background regarding SOPs, such option plans have yet to develop in Turkey. Upon the entry into force of the recent Turkish Commercial Code, SOPs did become exercisable in Turkey, however, and frequently preferred in publicly traded companies.

Read more: Stock Option Plans in Turkey


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Introduction

Both in the Turkish Code of Obligations ("TCO") and the Swiss Code of Obligations ("SCO"), the notion of unlikely debt repayment is regulated under two different parts. According to Article 27 of the TCO (Article 20 of SCO), contracts with an impossible subject are null and void. 

In the case of a subsequent unlikelihood of debt repayment, the consequences vary according to differing circumstances: if the debtor is not responsible for the occurrence of the unlikelihood for the debt to be made whole, the debt ends according to Article 136 of TCO (Article 119 of SCO). To the contrary, if the debtor is responsible for the occurrence of the unlikely repayment, the denouncement of the contract is controversial. 

The Swiss Federal Court adopted a different view in its recent decision, which will be examined. Below, the doctrinal view on the subsequent unlikelihood of repayment for which the debtor is responsible will be addressed and, lastly, the new precedent of the Swiss Federal Court will be analyzed. 

Read more: The Unlikelihood of a Subsequent Debt Repayment in Accordance With the Swiss Federal Court...