In general

There are certain limitations to freedom of contract. Under national laws, these limitations appear as mandatory rules based on public policy. Similarly, under international law, even if the parties have made a choice of law, in case there are overriding mandatory rules, these rules shall apply despite the choice of law. In this Newsletter article, overriding mandatory rules shall be assessed especially within the framework of Article 31 of Act No. 5718 on Private International and Procedure Law (“MOHUK”).

Read more: Overriding Mandatory Rules in Private International Law

By: Pedro Ramos and Rebecca Lacher

On April 24, 2015, the Department of Education Office for Civil Rights (OCR) published a new Dear Colleague Letter (DCL) and a letter directly to Title IX Coordinators, as well as a new 25-page Title IX Resource Guide. These reflect OCR's focus on ensuring that Title IX Coordinators have the appropriate authority and full support necessary from their institutions in order to perform their responsibilities.

Read more: Title IX Coordinators: Review of New Guidance from the Department of Education

By: Christian Breen

The Germanwings tragedy has prompted questions of what safeguards exist to manage potentially unstable pilots.

Confirmation by officials that the co-pilot of Germanwings Flight 92525 intentionally downed the aircraft has focussed scrutiny on identifying and managing risks which arise within the cockpit.

To read the full article click here or visit

By: Att. Ecem Susoy

Foundations are defined under Turkish Civil Law No. 4721 ("Civil Law") as a group of properties with legal personalities, established through the allocation of appropriate assets and rights for a certain and constant purpose by real persons or legal entities. Foundations are considered to be legal entities. 

Read more: Establishment of Foundations

Contact: Att. Leyla Orak Çelikboya; Erdem & Erdem (Turkey)


The Law on Consumer Protection No. 6502[1] ("LCP") entered into force on 28 May 2014 abrogating the former Law on Consumer Protection No. 4077 ("fLCP"). This amendment aiming to ensure coherence with European Union legislation, and at enhancing the protection of the consumer[2], and the secondary legislation enacted under the LCP introduces important novelties.

Read more: Comparative Advertising in Turkish Law